吳實錄

Annals of Wu

漢藏緬語々言研究ㄟ博客
a sinotibetoburman linguistics blog
2013-01-11

慕家花園黹繡學校 moka mission

Just a quick note to say that I've been working on a couple small side projects, one of which involves re-approaching the Moka Garden Embroidery Mission publications, as well as trying to track down some of the sister-school publications from the era and area.

I've also managed to dig up a number of passport applications, consular registration papers, US census reports and alumni newsletters from which I've been able to populate a pretty clear timeline of the lives of those involved in the mission, in particular that of Frances Burkhead who for many years was the superintendent of the Moka Garden mission. I was pleased to learn she lived to the age of 85, and ended her life in the same town where it began. More on all that later.

CNY is fast upon us, and I'm hoping that in addition to a little bit of domestic travel I'll be able to get a lot done with Phonemica as well as working on a number of such side projects as Moka Garden.
    2010-02-11

    Moka Zhuyin Revisited moka mission

    The following is my revised version of the Bopomofo used by the Moka Mission.

    ㄍㄐㄔㄗㄧㄛㄟㄣㄅㄠㄜㄨㄕㄑㄇㄏㄌㄏㄖㄙㄙㄩㄝㄡㄦㄞㄚㄓㄉ

    ㄅ [p]
    'ㄅ [b]
    ㄆ [pʰ]

    ㄪ [v]
    'ㄪ [v ̥]
    ㄈ [f]

    ㄉ [t]
    'ㄉ [d]
    ㄊ [tʰ]

    ㄗ [ts]
    'ㄗ [dz]
    ㄘ [tsʰ]

    ㄍ [k]
    'ㄍ [g]
    ㄎ [kʰ]

    ㄐ [tɕ]
    'ㄐ [dʑ]
    ㄑ [tɕʰ]

    ㄙ [s]
    'ㄙ [z]

    ㄒ [ɕ] hy in the Mission texts

    ㄌ [l] not sure here what the mark adds
    'ㄌ [ʔl]

    ㄇ [m]
    'ㄇ [ʔm]

    ㄋ [n]
    'ㄋ [ʔn]

    ㄬ [ɲ]
    'ㄬ [ʔɲ]

    ㄫ [ŋ]
    'ㄫ [ʔŋ]

    ㄏ [h]
    'ㄏ [ʔ]


      2009-10-19

      The Moka Mission Revisited moka mission

      I couldn't resist going back to the Moka Garden Embroidery Mission documents. There's just too much there to be limited to a couple posts.

      In addition to the book of short stories, they also recorded a staple of missionary linguistics, the Lord's Prayer. The following is from Inductive Lessons in Soochow Phonetics.



       


       



       

       






       


       

       


       

       


       


       



       


       


       



       


       


       


       

       


       










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      Some of the zhuyin glyphs used to represent sounds in Suzhou dialect are not standard zhuyin. If I've read correctly, they were created in their final form by the missionaries themselves, based of course on other glyphs or characters. Since these aren't standard and thus not covered by Unicode, I've had to do some borrowing. The following characters are used in the Moka Mission texts, here borrowed from Mandarin hanzi and Japanese katakana. Romanization is from the Moka publications.

       卄 - oong ノ - eh ウ - ien 干 - oen [øn] 丄 - aung ト - auh
       ム - z 广 - ny [ɲ] 乙 - ah 兀 - ng [ŋ] 万 - v ナ - o 久 - eh

      As far as the hanzi in the prayer goes, you may have noticed it's also not standard. The text is in traditional characters, as would be expected for 1920. However there are a fair number of occurrences of 个. Here it's been re-appropriated standing in for 得 and 的, both being pronounced "ge" in most Wu dialects.

      The text of the prayer transliterated using the Moka Mission's system is as follows:
      tsu bau vun
      ngoo nyi k ya lah thien laung k nyoen nyin koong kyung ya k my iz z sung k nyoen ya k kweh too le nyoen ya k tsu y zung koong lah ti laung ziang lah tsien laung ih yang nyieh nyieh yoong k van lyang kyeu ya kyung tsau beh lah nyi. mien theh ngoo nyi soo chien k tsa zyang nyi mien theh bieh nyin chien nyi k tsa ih y veh yau ling nyi zeu s fah yau kyeu nyi kheh hyoong auh ing we kweh too kyoen bing yoong yau zang z ya k tseh tau yoong. a men.


      Those familiar with early Romanisation of Chinese will be able to muck through it fairly effectively. To get an idea of more modern language since the Lord's Prayer is hardly the typical conversation, the following is from the book of short stories published by the mission. It's the first sentence of the first story.

       laopai kyi-dan-kau z taung tien-sin chuh k meh-z.
       modern ci-de-kau zy daon thie-tsin chih keh me-zeh.
       pinyin jīdàngāo shì táng tiānjīn chī de měishí
       hanzi 鸡蛋糕是糖天津吃得美食".

      The second is from the Wu Association online mini dictionary which uses another non-standard system of transcription but one which matches the Moka system well enough. The vowel in "taung" ought to match the one in the "daon" on the modern Suzhou dialect version, both corresponding to 糖.
        2009-10-13

        Suzhou Dialect In 1920 moka mission - suzhou

        The following is from the preface to Inductive Lessons in Suzhou Dialect, published in 1920 by the Moka Garden Embroidery Mission.

        PREFACE
          In February, 1919, a Committee was appointed for the purpose of adapting the National Phonetic script to the Shanghai and Soochow dialects. The alphabet upon which these lessons are based is the one agreed upon by this Committee.
          The lessons were first prepared in chart form and used in teaching the women of the Embroidery Mission to read and write.
          The fact that from the very first lesson the pupils re ale to read ordinary sentences WHICH THEY CAN UNDERSTAND creates an interest which makes them anxious to complete the series. The strongest appeal which is the study of phonetics makes to the women is that it will enable them to write letters. For this reason we have included two letters in the Primer.
          Experience has shown that a more ready response is obtained when the words are taucht first and afterwards divided into the phonetic elements. The word exercises beginning on page 13 are to be used for additional practice in combining the various sounds.
          When this Primer is thoroughly mastered the pupil will be prepared to read anything published in the Shanghai of Soochow dialects.
          January 1, 1920  FRANCES BURKHEAD

        There's an additional note, dated October 1, 1920, stating that some changes have been made for the publication but that the content has otherwise been used to successfully teach hundreds to read. My assumption then is along the lines of "how hard can it be?". As such I've begun transcribing and ultimately translating a section of one of the books.

        To the point. The following is a transcription from zhuyin of the cover and first story from Simple Stories told in Soochow Phonetics. Footnotes are my understanding of some of the phrases. Hyphens exist in the original and have been left in place.

        注音字母故事 tsu-ing z-moo koo-z ㄗㄩㄧㄣㄙㄇㄨㄍㄨㄙ
        蘇州口音   soo-tseu kheu-ing

        i
        kyi-dan-kau lo li chi tse

        kyi-dan-kau z taung tien-sin chuh k meh-z. k-k kau-k mi-dau jieh hau chuh.
        'veh lung noen-hui zien hwoen-hyi chuh-k. zaung-he ling-s-mo-tok ihcha-mung ting hwoen-hyi
        chuh k. k-k dan-kau z 'li-tok auh -li soo-tsoo k. tse yeu khaung lau mak
        pah-ts kok yang meh-z peh kyi chuh k. soo-i 'li-tok yang-ts too-hwo kyi. 'li-tok
        'me li-pa tsho 'veh too yeu san-s tsoen yoong kyi-dan-kau taung zo-tien. li-pok
        ok-li yeu liang-k siau-goen.nen k kyau pau-loo nyui k kyau me-me.'me-nyieh
        'li-tok liang-k nyung chi dok su iau teu ih li too loo tok.ing-we loo zeh
        kang yoen. le-chi 'veh bien-tuang. soo-i 'li-tok tau 'aung li chi k zung-kwaung pa-ts
        van lau chi k.ih nyieh pau-loo faung-'auh. tseu tau tsau-'o mung 'li-k nyang ak
        yeu chuh-k meh-z. in-we 'li jieh-ji doo-li ngoo. li-k nyang zang-zang thing
        kyien zeh kang mung. zieu te 'li seh. lah tsau-'o zu-li bung-ts-li yeu ling-

        ii
        khooe kyi-tan2-kau. ne khoo-i chi no le chuh. ih khooe meh peh me-me chuh.
        pau-loo zieu chi chuh-ts ih khooe. dan-z 'wan iau chuh me-me k ih khooe. zieu tse
        chi mung 'li-k nyang seh 'li tse iau chuh kooe-k ih khooe. tung me-me tsoen le khoo-i
        chuh bie-k me-z. khoo-i nyi 'veh khoo-i kya. 'li-k nyang thing-kyien ts zieu te 'li
        khoen ts ieh-hyieh. pau-loo kok zak zan-gwe-khooe kau zung-jeu chi
        faung lah tsau-'o. 'veh too ieh-hyieh me-me zoong 'auh-daung li tsoen-le tse. 'li-k
        nyang kyau 'li tau tsau-'o chi no kyi-dan-kau chuh. me-me zieu seh 'm-me soo tsoo
        k kyi-dan-kau z jiah-hau chuh k. soo-i 'li lieh-kheh tau tsau-'o shi no-le
        chuh. dan z no 'veh zak. 'li tse chi mung 'm-'me seh kyi-dan-kau nah-hang 'veh lah
        woen-zu li. we-tah-seh lah woen-zu k 'o-kyung. me-me seh. tsuh yeu ieh-tsak khoong
        bung-ts. bing 'veh-yeu kau lah he. ling-z-mo jieh hyi-ji 'li lieh-kheh tseu
        tau tsau-'o chi ieh khoen. koo zoen 'veh yeu. sing-li jieh 'veh kha-weh lau seh
        pieh-ding z oau-loo chuh theh k. 'eu-le z-ka siang lau seh tshieh-pok se k

        iii
        siau koen tse hwoen-hyi chuh k. 've-lung chuh k me-s pau-loo zoong siau zeu-zak
        kyau-yok. siang 've-tau 'li 'we tsoo ze-kang k z ti. soo-i zieu no-ts-tian
        bie-k me-z lah me-me chuh. di-hi-hie z li-pa-lok. ih ka mung lah chuh
        tsoong-van k zung-kwaung 'me-hung yeu tuh chuh liang khooe kyi-dan-gau. k-k zung-kwaung
        ling-s-mo te ling-sien-sang seh. 'veh iau peh pau-loo chuh ing-'we 'li zok-nyie
        i-kyung too chuh ih-khooe. pau-loo seh ngoo mung-ts 'm-'me i-heu zieu chi faung
        lah bung-ts li-k. 'veh sung chuh. 'li-k nyang seh ngoo i-kyung tah me-me ih dau
        tau tsau-'o li chi zing-koo. tsuh yeu ih-tsak khoong bung-ts. nyang seh-k zung-kwaung
        yeu 'veh kha-weh k iang seh. ping-khi yeu ieu-zieu k yang-seh. ling-sien-sang
        khoen-kyien zeh-kang kang-seh jieh-ji-hyi-ji. siang pau-loo iau tah nyang bien-lung.
        zieu se pau-loo seh. ne 'veh iau too-seh. k-k z-thi, i-'eu khoo-i tse zo.
        zoen-zoen zo-kheh z ne duh theh ne me-me k zeh-veh mehm ne tsung-tsung z ih
        k 'veh-hau k siau-koen. ling-s-mo seh, yien-se 'veh pieh tse di chi k-k s-thi.

        iv
        yien-se khoo-i kaung bieh k z-thi.
        li-pa-ih 'o poen hieh, ling-ka-li tse tsoo kyi-da-kau. oau-loo zoong 'auh-
        taung-li tsoen le. 'li-k nyang seh, 'auh-taung s ne doo-li ngoo. ngoo i-kyung yui-be
        ih khooe kyi-dan-kau peh ne taung tien-sin. ne khoo-i tau chuh-van-kan li chi no.
        pau-loo seh, k-k ih-doo-khooe-kau ak z peh ngoo ih-k-hung chuh k. sing-li jih-
        ji kha-'leh. hweh-zoen siang zak li-pa-ng k z-thi. zieu seh 'm-'me peh ngoo
        zeh-kang ih-doo khooe-kau, pih ding i-we ngoo lah li-pa-ng duh-ngoo me-me
        k chuh-seh. ji-zeh 'veh-z ngoo shuh k. 'li-k nyang se, ngoo soo tsoo k kau z
        peh ng-tok chuh k. peh-koo ngoo ting 'veh hwoen-hyi ng-tok ziang siau-hung thoen chuh
        bieh-hung k meh-z. ing-we nyung lah nyien-ky-chung k zung-kwaung, 'veh nung tuh-sung
        ze-auh tau tsang doo k zung kwaung, pieh ding 'an lah ze-hieh li. ziang ia-
        phien-iien lau hyang-iieh tah-ts tsieu ih yang k. zak-zoen lah nyien-chung k zung-kwaung nung-
        keu sung-koo ih-tshieh ze-auh, k-meh tau tsang doo k zung kwaung, zieu nung-keu tuh-

        v
        sung ih-tsieh iung-ieu lau mi-weh. zoong tsh zung-koong zeu-we laung k ieh-k woen-
        zien-nyung. k-k ih-ia pau-loo sing-li jieh 'veh bing-oen. khwung lah zaung-laung
        meh, khwung 'veh-zak zieu chi-le tau-kau zang-ti seh, ngoo lah tsu-hieh-'o-li,
        dok-koo ieh kyui kyung-kyui suh, van-i, nyung yeu wan-nan jeu zang-ti, zang-ti
        tieh kyeu 'li. ngoo yien-ze k wan-nan zieu z kyi-tan2-kau k z thi. ze iui
        bieh-nyung soen siau z thi, dan, z ze iui nyi seau-koen sung-laung z jieh nan
        zeu k. yien-ze ih-ka-mung zien i-we ngoo chuh theh k-khwe kyi-tan-kau. tsuh
        yeu zang-tu hyau-tuh k. tshing ne kyeu ngoo theh-li k-k khwung nan. tau-kau woen-
        tieh, tse chi khwung. zung-jeu khwung 'veh-zak. tse chi-le tau kau lau seh, zak-
        zoen ngoo k nyang 'veh kau-soo ngoo no me-me soo chuh-k kau-k tsho meh, jeu zang-ti
        paung-zoo ngoo nung-keu sung-koo ih tshieh ze-auh. ping-tshien nung-keu tsau ia-soo
        soo-seh-k lau 'ang. zieu z seh, ne nyoen-y nyung nah-hang de-ne, ne 'ah ing-
        ke nah-hang de-nyung. ngoo i-kyung tsoo tsho lau van-ze, jeu zang-ti paung-zoo ngoo.

        vi
        i-'eu 'veh tse sang z koo-z k sing. ping-tshien kyeu ngoo tshuh k-k boo wan-nan.
        tau-kau woen-ts zieu khwung zak tse. di-nyi-nyieh tsau laung, thing-kyien yoen-li ieu
        doo-k sung-ing. lieh-kheh zoong leu laung 'o le. khoen-kyien 'li-k ya tse-zaung-chi-
        tang pak-sien-sang k ih-tsak huh-keu. keu kyau-tuh 'man-hyang. pak sien-sang mung lau seh.
        ngoo k key tsoo-ts sa k tsho-z kya. ling-sien-sang siay lay seh, k-tsak keu zoong
        tshaung-li thiau tau tsau-'o 'an ts ih-khooe kyi-dan-kay chi. thieh-tsung peh ngoo
        khoen-kyien. soo-i ngoo tang 'li. pak-sien sang suh, k-tsal zeh-keu. zaung li-pa-ng 'o-
        khoo k i-'eu ngoo-k s-mo 'ah khoen-kyien 'li 'an-ts ih-khwe ting, zoong ne ok-
        li-tsheh-le. ngoo thieh-tsung le kau soo ng-tok. pau-loo thing-kyien-ts, jieh ji kha-
        weh. ing-we tsoong-nyung nyi-weh 'li k z-thi, i-kyung ka-khe. zieu seh, ngoo-k
        hau-keu. zieu tse peh 'li chuh ih-khwe oing. ya iau tsoo-taung 'li i-kyung le
        'veh ji. pau-loo seh, ngoo jieh kha-weh. ing-we ng-tok 'veh-i-we ngoo z ih
        k seh-hwaung-k-nyung. 'an hyay-tuh k-khwe-kau 'veh z ngoo chuh k. tau-ts li-pa-

        vii
        san chuh fan-k z-'eu. pau loo hyau-khe lan-ke, khoen kyien yeu ih doo khwe woen-zien
        k kyi-ban-kau. tsung-tsung kha weh lau zieu no-tsheh le ih-tchieh liang-khwe. ih-
        khwe peh 'li-k me-me chuh. tse yey ih-khwe tshing mung khoen sui-k nyung ak hy tuh
        sa-nyung chuh k.


        1. 注音字母故事,蘇州口音
        2. possible typo in the original. should be "dan".
        3. often 'ng' is written to mark /n/ or even just what would be a nasalization of a vowel in modern 苏州话, though in the case of the latter it's likely an -n or -ng ending on the same word in Mandarin.

        Time permitting, I'll subject this to a couple hours with a good Suzhouhua dictionary and see if I can't make sense of it all. The biggest problem at the moment is not knowing exactly what sounds are being attempted to transcribe with the Romanization system, as it seems to be neither Legge nor Wade-Giles.

        I'm working on the translation or at the very least a transcription to something more representative of the appropriate sounds.

        Anyone wanting to take a stab at this, feel free to get in touch.
          2009-10-12

          Soochow Zhuyin Fuhao moka mission

          Hat-tip to @kmlawson who inadvertently directed me to the National Library of Australia's digital collections. I did a quick search for "Soochow" and got two hits:

          Inductive Lessons in Soochow Phonetics (also 注音字母入門 or ㄗㄧㄣㄙ̀ㄇㄨㄙ̀ノㄇㄣ) by Frances Burkhead, published in Suzhou in 1920, and Simple Stories told in Soochow Phonetics (also 注音字母故事 or ㄗㄧㄣㄙ̀ㄇㄨㄍㄨㄙ̀) translated by Miss Wo Iung-Tuh.

          Those of you able to make heads or tails of zhuyin fuhao might notice a few inconsistencies. The books, entirely 蘇州話, are written in a modified form of the zhuyin pinyin. For example ㄙ̀ and ノ, the second of which here I'm borrowing from katakana and marks Wade-Gilesesque "eh". The example given for ノ is 盦 but it's small and the jpeg compression is wreaking havoc on the legibility so I may be wrong.

          The rest of the chart is as follows. I started making it all in text, but it was taking too long. When I finish it I'll replace the image.



          The footnote on the bottom states that Suzhou dialect doesn't use those particular sounds. The table is otherwise labeled as sounds from "蘇滬", Suzhou and Shanghai. The original image can be seen by clicking through the link in the first paragraph.

          I knew zhuyin was used to write languages beyond Mandarin, having modified letters to cover Hakka and Southern Min. I had not ever heard of it being used for Wu.

          One of the books, and based on the typeface and whatnot, probably the other as well, was published by the Moka Garden Embroidery Mission in Suzhou. The Embroidery Mission was originally called the Industrial School of Soochow and was opened sometime after 1901 by a missionary named Virginia Atkinson, a Methodist from Alabama. According to the book Taking Christianity to China*, one of the triumphs of the mission was alleviating the unemployment in Suzhou. Workers were paid $7.50 a month and worked from 8:30 to 17:00. Beyond affecting unemployment, it created "evangelistic opportunities for Methodist missionaries". It stands to reason that included combating illiteracy**.

          If you click through to the library site and can read zhuyin, be sure to check out the rubi for the books' titles, the only thing otherwise in 漢字.

          Thanks to @Tortue for his willingness to help decode.

          - - -
          * page 166 from the Google Books edition.
          ** The same group of missionaries were also active in Changzhou and Shanghai, and as we know, no one works dialects and under-appreciated languages like the missionaries.
          edit: I've removed the sample image. It wasn't loading right and was causing a number of alignment problems on the main page.

            About

            A semi-academic linguistics blog about Sinotibetan, previously focused primarily on Wú, a Sinitic language spoken in the Yangtze Delta region. Topics now include historical linguistics, documentation, language rights, sociolinguistics and learning materials, as well as acting as the dev blog for Phonemica from time to time.

            I'm a linguist based in Asia, working on documentation and historical development of Sinotibetan. In addition to academic research, I'm heavily involved in Phonemica, an organisation that promotes crowd-sourced preservation of local languages.

            I'm currently in the field, so getting in touch isn't easy. However you can try to email me at the following address and I'll respond as soon as I'm able:

            yhilan.ko@gmail.com
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