“I really didn’t think it would be this hard,” said Teara Farrow Ferman, manager of cultural resource programs for the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. “I didn’t think that we would still be disputing this after so much time.”
The county agreed to change most of the names, but it would not accept the Indian names proposed by the tribes.
Officials protested that some of the name changes proposed by Native Americans — like Sáykiptatpa and Nikéemex — were too hard to pronounce, prompting the tribes to create an interactive pronunciation guide.
“Seriously, can you pronounce them?” asked Mr. Britton, the county commissioner. “It’s a safety issue. Someone making a 911 call has to say the location, and the dispatcher has to understand and repeat it to the sheriff.”
Help improve Google TranslateInternationally, it makes sense to do Cantonese before Shanghainese. Logistically as well since there's a much greater corpus of standardised Cantonese data. Still makes me sad not to see Hakka or Wu anywhere on their list.
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我们村原来叫‘田梅洞村’。好多年以前，来了位风水先生，按照风水理论把村名改成了现在的‘田尾X（三点水旁‘亚’字上加两点）村’。具体为什么改我也说不清。The character ere described is 湴, likely pronounced bàn in MSM. The interesting thing is that the problem which the villagers were facing, and the reason anyone was writing about this at all in 2007, was that people couldn't type the character 湴 for things like legal documents. The reason? The PRC is using an outdated character encoding standard, GB 2312. Newer standards such as GB 18030 or Unicode do support the character. It's not even an issue in the style of Ma Cheng (馬馬馬馬) where even modern systems have problems, but rather just that the systems in use by the State are outdated.
We can speculate both on articulatory and perceptual grounds [for a particular tonal phenomenon]. First, a possible explanation is that the voiced consonants went through an implosive stage (b > ɓ) before merging with the voiceless series. Since implosives have a tendency to raise the F0 of the following vowel, it would not be surprising to find lower tonal reflexes on vowels following historically voiceless consonants.
A variety is any body of human speech patterns which is sufficiently homogeneous to be analyzed by available techniques of synchronic description and which has a sufficiently large repertory with broad enough semantic scope to function in all normal contexts of communication.Simple as that. I particularly like how it takes into account dialect continua. It's inclusive enough to be fairly unobjectionable, but simple enough to not get bogged down in the details or exceptions to the definitions.
A language consists of all varieties which share a single super-posed variety having substantial similarity in phonology and grammar with the included varieties of which are mutually intelligible or are connected by a series of mutually intelligible varieties.
A dialect is any set of one or more varieties of a language which share at least sone feature or combination of features setting them apart from other varieties of the language, and which may appropriately be treated as a unit on linguistic or non-linguistic grounds.
Here's a new Shanghainese app for Android. It uses a modified version of Wu Association pinyin, so it's not as confusing as the one Dr. Qian came up with.
Military-related medical phrases for foreign language learners of Shanghainese (沪语/上海言话), the largest variety of Wu Chinese (吴语), with audio, Romanization, and Chinese script. Use this app to select an English phrase and view its translation and how to pronounce it in Shanghainese. Texts are given in Simplified Chinese script.
This app uses modified Wu Association Romanization. High tones are induced by voiceless initial consonants p(h), mh, f, t(h), nh, lh, tz, ts, s, c(h), sh, k(h), h, and ∅, and low tones are induced by voiced initial consonants b, m, v, d, n, l, z, j, zh, g, ng, hh. For more detailed explanation of the Romanization system, please visit https://www.google.com/url?q=http://esotericlinguist.wordpress.com/2014/01/17/shanghainese-romanization/
This app was originally developed as an entry to the 2010 CIO/G6 "Apps for the Army" competition, and it is based on the modules publicly available online from the U.S. Defense Language Institute. Content edited and arranged by Percy Wong; app development by Robert Theis.
Phonemica is a project to record spoken stories in every one of the thousands of varieties of Chinese in order to preserve both stories and language for future generations. We are a team of volunteers working within China and abroad.
Our mission: Bringing the richness of oral Chinese to a wider audience, through the words of natural storytellers, from every corner of the world where Chinese is spoken.
大清老早 → 大24 清55 老45 早45
動手動腳 → 動24 手45 動24 腳55
大24 清55 老45 早45 → 大21 清21 老44 早21
動24 手45 動24 腳55 → 動21 手21 動44 腳21
to read a book (right-prominent phrase)
讀12書53 → 讀22書53 / 12 53 → 22 53
to study (left-prominent word)
讀12書53 → 讀11書23 / 12 53 → 11 23
1) 昨 zuó is jok3 in Cantonese, 작 jak in Korean, tạc in Vietnamese, and ought to be zɔʔ8 in Changzhou, but instead it's zo2, yang ping, corresponding to Mandarin's zuó, also yang ping.
2) 幕 mù is mok6 in Cantonese, 막 mak in Korean, mạc in Vietnamese, and I'd expect it to be mɔʔ8 in Changzhou but actually it's mɤʊ6, yang qu, which also corresponds to the tone of the syllable in Mandarin, yin and yang having merged into what is now Mandarin's fourth tone.
一 七 乐 勿 日 发 白 百 舌 色 节 约
一 七 樂 勿 日 發 白 百 舌 色 節 約
yī qī lè wù rì fā bái bǎi shé sè jié yuē
일 칠 락 물 일 발 백 백 설 색 절 약
iɪˀ ʨʰiɪˀ ɦiɑˀ vəˀ ɲiɪˀ fɑˀ bɑˀ pɑˀ zəˀ səˀ ʨiɪˀ iɑˀ
“The other day I went to the store but they’re closed until tomorrow because of the national holiday.”However this would be quite cumbersome in any Sinitic language and, more importantly, the concepts of the sentence are easily broken down. So instead we could think of this sentance more along the lines of this:
“The other day, I went to the store, but, because of the national holiday, they’re closed until tomorrow.”I’ve added more commas than we’d normally see in English in order to more clearly distinguish what might qualify as a phrase in our 2-5 syllable rule set.
Q: What's the meaning of "yi gang" in Shanghainese? Is it like "imnida"?
A: There are three meanings. One is "he/she said". The second is as a modal particle affixed to the end of a sentence to express unexpectedness. The third is "he/she is stupid" (which might accurately be written 伊戇 yīgàng?). Thus the famous sentence "yigang yigang yigang", 伊讲伊戆一刚.
For anyone who has mastered a few basic Chinese commands and been stumped when your local street vendor doesn’t know what you’re saying since he speaks ‘Shanghainese’, you may be able to call his bluff next time! It seems that there are very few ‘pure’ Shanghai dialect speakers; whatever ‘pure’ means. The Shanghai government has had to rethink a recent recruitment drive to recruit Shanghainese speakers as they failed to find even a few qualified candidates. Of the 13 recruitment sites, only 2 found suitable candidates despite it being reported that there are over 14 million speakers of the dialect. The government are now turning to the media for help in preserving and researching the dialect. If you're looking to brush up on your Shanghainese then visit Shanghai City’s very own ‘how to guide’ - complete with sound clips!
In one recording, Lloren captures the hum of the city and the snippets of conversations from people walking by. Jackhammers ring in the distance. The sounds of bicycle gears pierce the layers of sound. Buses come screaming to a halt in a wave of horns. There is something strangely intimate about focusing on these sounds up close, as if one can really feel the pulse of Shanghai. Lloren's has used these recordings to create soundwalks of Shanghai that focus on authenticity, offering listeners a way to experience Shanghai that they wouldn't get by simply taking a tour.
ONCE Shanghai dialect was widely understood in the region and known for its rich idiomatic speech, its memorable slang. But now even local Huju Opera has trouble finding speakers of pure and coherent Shanghaihua. Liang Yiwen reports.
In a race against time to rescue fast-fading Shanghai dialect, the city is putting out the call for native speakers whose pure and idiomatic speech will be recorded and used for research, preservation and promotion activities.
gəˀ tɑˀ tɔ ɛ mi zɿ lɔ ʥin gəˀ
It's not far from here to there.
唱歌 － ʦʰɑ̃ ku － to sing a song
跳舞 － tʰiɔ vu － to dance
Professor Qian Nairong (钱乃荣) might appear to be like any other mild-mannered professor. But get him talking about his passion, Shanghainese, and it becomes obvious why he has become one of the city's newest social heroes. His projects to promote the use of Shanghainese have made him a local legend: a comprehensive Shanghai dialect dictionary and a, excuse us, the, Shanghainese input method -- think pinyin for Shanghai dialect. Not just for lingaphiles, these books are saving Shanghai's native tongue, getting more and more Shanghai residents using their local language.
Society ，由這個詞演变而来。開埠之初的上海，傳統的上海女人是看不慣那些在交際界（society) 混的女人。洋泾浜英語把這些女人混迹的地方稱為“society”。十三點由此也就慢慢地變成了罵女人的專用詞。往後，上海人就漸漸地淡忘了十三點的本來意思，會把十三與點分開，簡化地罵：“十三伐啦？”幹脆省略去了“點”。在今天，十三作為一個專門人的名詞，已經遠遠離開了它的原來的本意。罵誰都可以用“十三點”。
吴语对大多说上海人来说占据了他们每日与家人, 朋友交流的很大一部分. 方言的未来怎样? 是否有保存的价值? 就保护方言来说,现在做了什么? 来自Sinoglot的Kellen Parker希望你5月28日下午4点半到新单位来参与讨论. 说出你对这个9千万人都在使用的语言怎么看. 讨论以英语的形式展开, 不过也可以使用中文参与其中.
The dialects of Wu are a big part of life for most native Shanghainese, used for day-to-day conversations with family and friends. But what does the future hold for the dialects? Is there value in preservation? What's being done now to protect the language? Sinoglot's Kellen Parker hopes you'll come join the discussion at Xindanwei on Friday the 28th at 4:30. Come give your opinions and reflections on the language of 90 million people. The talk will be in English but feel free to participate in Chinese.
With the advance of the internet, language has become more colourful. We're seeing the outpouring of new words and new characters, many of which are meant as shortened forms¹. "Biao" 表 is one such playful example, intended to express "bu yao" 不要. In the past, Chinese character sounds were given in books using fanqie character pairs, where a first character gave the initial consonant of the syllable and a second gave the rest², thus providing the reading for the original character. If you use the two characters "bu yao" in this way (since "yao" is a -iao ending), the resulting sound is "biao".
Of course, here "biao" is really a dialectal word to express 不要 (bu yao). The place where this is used is not far from here, but is just Hangzhou. Hanzhou natives never say "bu yao wan", "bu yao chi", but rather "biao wan" and "biao chi".
The character 表 is here only half-jokingly repurposed. It's only a phonetic representation, not an idiographic one. But there is a much earlier character for 不要, 嫑, which is not an invention of mine and can be found in many character dictionaries. I have always felt these 不 characters were pretty niu, for example 不正 as 歪, 不用 as 甭 and 不好 as 孬.
There is simply no 不 in Shanghainese. But then if someone were to wish to speak for a very long time, what should they say?
Shanghainese does have the character 不, for example in "stainless steel" (不锈钢, not-rust-steel), but this word entered Shanghainese from Mandarin. Otherwise, Shanghainese has 不过 (but), but it's pronounced like "毕过". So in this way, it seems Shanghainese really doesn't really have the character 不. Instead, Shanghai locals express negation with 勿, the pronunciation of which is somewhere between Mandarin's 佛 (fó) and 浮 (fé), which if spelled with pinyin would be "fé".
What's more, as a result of the Song capital being moved from Kaifeng to Hangzhou³, the Hangzhou dialect has a large number of northern sounds. 嫑 is an example of one. And since Shanghainese uses 勿 instead of 不, we can substitute 勿 for 不 when used, thus changing the 不 in 嫑 to 勿.
Can we really do this? My answer is surely we can, and this character is 覅, 不 having been changed to 勿 and moving it from above to the side. How to read this character? According to classical reading or right-to-left, this character is 勿要. Try using the fanqie method. That's right, it's read "fiào", and as such it is printed in character dictionaries.
This character is actually an invention of Han Bangqing. A Shanghai local, Han Bangqing wrote China's first periodical novel called A Remarkable Book of Shanghai. In it is a story called Flowers in Shanghai, in which Han Bangqing coined the character 覅.
Flowers in Shanghai takes place in Shanghai and has many characters speaking the Suzhou⁴ dialect. This is also evidence of why Shanghainese has many sounds similar to Suzhou dialect, and in Suzhou you'll also hear "fiào". Flowers in Shanghai is written in the vernacular, and for this reason Han Bangqing "invented" 覅.
不 is used in many combinations, and therefore we can use 勿 in the same way. 朆 is another such character, coming from 勿曾 and meaning "to not have". Using fanqie for 勿 and 曾, we read it as "fen". So for example if someone asks you if you've eaten yet, you can respond "hai fen chi lai", "I haven't yet eaten".
ŋu lɑˀ lɑ zɑ̃ hɛ ɦoŋ ʥiɔ lu 850 loŋ 22 ɦɔ 1602 səˀ
wǒ zài Shànghǎi hóngqiáolù bābǎi wǔshí nòng èrshíèr hào yīqiān liùbǎi èr shì.
"yígāng yígǎng yîgāng"
· its role in the lives of the localsIt will be an informal discussion and I hope to hear your thoughts as much as you'll hear mine.
· its future as a tool for interaction
· the value of preservation and
· the value of standardisation
4C，Bld 4 IIInShanghai Hub，No.727 Dingxi Road，Changning District，Shanghai, China
- creative in nature
- involve a wu dialect in written or spoken form
ʨy min doŋ ʦɿ mən
jū mín tóng zhì men
sɿ poˀ ɦuɛ ʥi kɛ
shì bóhuì qī jiān
during the run of the Expo,
ɕi mɑ̃ dɑ kɑ
xī wàng dà jiā
we hope everyone
di kɔ ʨin tʰiɪˀ
can raise their level of awareness
kɑ ʥiɑ̃ bã ɦuɛ
jiā qiáng fáng fàn
and strengthen our defences,
ɦuɛ bin ø sɿ poˀ ʦu ʦʰəˀ koŋ ɕi
wèi píng ān shì bó zuò chū gòng xiàn
devoting ourselves to the security of the event.
tʰin zɿ tʰin təˀ toŋ iɪˀ ŋɛ ŋɛ, kɑ̃ kɑ̃ vəˀ lɛ gəˀ.
听是 "listening is"
听得懂 "I understand what I hear", same as Mandarin.
一眼眼 Here's our first real difference. "iɪˀ ŋɛ ŋɛ" is acting as 一点点 would in
Mandarin or 一啲啲 in Cantonese. You might also hear 一星星 or
一咪咪, as well as just 一点点 where 点 is more like "ti".
讲 Simply "speaking" or "to speak"
讲勿来个 勿来 (or 弗来 or 否来) means "not coming," meaning it's not coming out
of your mouth. 个 here is 的. In Mandarin we might be able to exchange
this with 讲不来的, "unable to say" or more formally "That which is
unable to be said".
tʰin⁵³ zɿ²³ tʰin⁵³ təˀ⁵⁵ toŋ³⁴ iɪˀ⁵⁵ ŋɛ²³ ŋɛ²³，kɑ̃³⁴ kɑ̃³⁴ vəˀ¹² lɛ²³ gəˀ¹².
tʰinH zɿM tʰinM təˀM toŋM iɪˀM ŋɛM ŋɛL，kɑ̃M kɑ̃H vəˀM lɛM gəˀL
tʰin zɿ tʰin təˀ toŋ iɪˀ ŋɛ ŋɛ，kɑ̃ kɑ̃ vəˀ lɛ gəˀ.
swapped ŋ and ɲ between shift and option keys. This was after months of constantly hitting the wrong one
moved ɱ from option to shift key to match ŋ
added ᴴ ᴹ and ᴸ for marking Shanghainese tone sandhi
added superscript glottal stop ˀ on shift+?, standard verstion ʔ moved to option+?
Installation (Mac OS X)
1. Extract the .zip file’s contents (Wu.icns and Wu.keylayout) to ~/Library/Keyboard Layouts.
2. Under the International (Leopard & earlier) or Language & Text (Snow Leopard) preference pane in System Preferences, go to Input Sources
3. Scroll down in the list all the way to the bottom. Check “Wu- IPA”.
4. Log out of OS X and then log back in.
I was very surprised to see Chinesepod using these random characters to represent the sounds of Shanghainese.
It is obvious that 便宜 or 一百 is always 便宜 or 一百, whether you pronounce it in Cantonese, Shanghainese or Hunanese. In fact, the pronunciation of these characters as we know them today in mandarin is not necessarily the most correct ones from a historical point of view, in many cases the original pronunciations may have been closer to some present day dialects.
Sure enough, Shanghainese is a new language that combines various Wu dialects, so there is little written material in Shanghainese proper. But there is abundant literature written in Wu, and it obviously used the characters in their proper sense. To ignore this is to ignore the importance of characters in the culture and language of all Chinese - including the Wu speakers.
伊杭州来个。It will also be included as part of the upcoming release of the Eclectus dictionary created by Christoph Burgmer and the related cjklib project..
ɦi⁵³ ɦɑ̃⁵³ ʦɤ lɛ⁵³ gəˀ¹²
Don’t fear Heaven, don’t fear Earth. Only fear the nonsense spoken in Gaochun.
Don’t fear Heaven, don’t fear Earth. Only fear a Wenzhouren speaking Wenzhou hua.
ɦi sa di fã lɛ ɦəˀ
हि सा दि वं ले ह
ŋu ɦiɤ ti ɕiɔ zɿ tʰi ɕiã ʨʰiɲ noŋ pã mã
ङू हुी ति शुी स थि शिं थ्शिञ नोङ पं मं
The audio we have so far in Shanghainese. Yes, we do have such an exotic language. Now, you may be wondering why on Earth did we pick Shanghainese? Well, for a few reasons.
Allan (aka. sysko), one of the most active developer in the team, is very interested in Chinese, and more particularly in Shanghainese. He was provided 900 Shanghainese sentences from shanghaining.com.
Congcong (aka. fucongcong), one of the most important contributor in Tatoeba, speaks Shanghainese.
They were both able to meet regularly Nicolas (aka. zmoo), president of Shtooka, in order to record these sentences in Paris.
When will you come home? (English)
なん じ に かえっ て くる の 。
いつ きたく し ます か 。
Wann kommst du heim? (German)
Our Shanghainese series officially launches with its first lesson on April 23, 2010. In total, there will be ten lessons (all covering newbie level Shanghainese content), and one extra show (an introduction to the dialect and the city, which will be published on Saturday, April 17).
Each lesson, as with our Mandarin Chinese lessons, features a dialog recorded by native speakers. These are dialogs you could easily hear on the street or in a restaurant while out to dinner with your friends in Shanghai. We’ve isolated some key words and phrases that will be featured in each lesson’s vocabulary tab.
Thank you for your suggestion! We have added Wu as well as renamed Chinese to Mandarin.
New features in RhinoSpike: Accents can now be specified in user profiles and will be displayed next to recordings! Also, audio requests with recordings can no longer be deleted. New languages added: Wu & Tamil. Chinese has been renamed to Mandarin.
Is "Wu" on RhinoSpike useful, though? If I want a recording in Shanghainese, then I can't just say "Wu," right?
Finally, we recognize that in many places in China Mandarin is not the only spoken language. In fact, nearly every part of China has its own local dialect. To address this, and to help foreigners get the most out of their daily interactions here, we plan to launch mini-series focusing on local dialects. We could not have covered these dialects in our newbie lessons, as they do not constitute high-frequency language for Chinese learners (a person in Beijing wouldn’t need to know how to ask for a bathroom in the Xian dialect, for example). Thus they will be (language-focused) extra content aimed at bringing more insight to Chinese life and culture. In honor of the city ChinesePod calls home, we will begin with Shanghainese. We hope to move on to beijinghua and more, but we’ll need your input to help decide which dialects deserve a close look!
The numbers "394052786" when pronounced in Cantonese, will give the nine tones in order (Romanisation (Yale) saam1, gau2, sei3, ling4, ng5, yi6, chat7, baat8, luk9), thus giving a good mnemonic for remembering the nine tones.
1:1. Kyi-tsu Jing-ming ts‘ông-zao t'in teng di.̤ duâi. 1:2. Di m-neh soh-go siang-mao, tu z hyü k'ong-ko: 'ong-shü min-teng heh-en: Jing-ming-go Ling yüing-dong læ shü-go min-teng. 1:3. Jing-ming wô, Kæ yiu liang-kwông; liang-kwông ziu yiu de.̤ng duŏh sŏ̤h iông gâu-gâu gì duâi-ĭ. 1:4 Jing-ming k'en keh liang-kwông z hao; Jing-ming ziu feng c'ih liang teng en læ.̤ sĕng gáe̤ cī ciéh nè̤ng gâe̤ng duâi-ĭ táung lâi gó̤, cêu sáung diê-nè̤ng buōng-sê̤ṳ duâi.
There are aids for the study of the southern dialects of China, but no one has yet written on the speech of the rich and populous province of Kiáng-nán. On Missionary and Commercial grounds, it is time that some attempt should be made to supply this want.
Upwards of twenty natural tones, from which each dialect chooses its own set, varying from four to eight, are here described.
The tones are four in number, each subdivided into kaú and tí, upper and lower, or as they are also denominated yin and yáng, feminine and mascule. These upper and lower series of tones are also distinguished, by different initial consonants, the one taking g, d, b, v, z, etc., and the other k, t, p, f, s etc.
“Growing Up With Shanghai” is a series of soundwalks with young Shanghainese who were born and raised during the rapid modernization of their city in the 1980s and 1990s. These recordings capture not only their most intimate memories of the locations where they grew up, but also the progress and growth Shanghai has undergone in the past 30 years. The current sounds of Shanghai can be heard behind the dialog and also serve as an audio document for future generations of Shanghainese. All dialogue is in Shanghainese or in their local dialect.
A striking example of the importance [of Wu for this purpose] is the word group placed under rime 江 in Ts'ie yün. Go-on (Wu) is the only one of all the dialects which treats its vocalism differently both from rime 唐 and time 陽, and thus it is just the Wu dialect that gives us the key to the old head vowel in Northern Chinese: 江 kâng.
她：iɛʔ ɲi sæ̃ sẓ n lɔ ʨʰɛ ba ʨiø sæʔ
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10
How do you say "hello"?
It's not "zài hùi"?
[ʦaɪ veɪ] for goodbye works too.
她：ɕaʊ jaʊ næʔ
I, you, he/she/it?
她：ŋ, n, ɦi
Us, you, them?
她：ŋ di, n di, ɦi da
How do you say "[I] don't have"?
她：n dʌʔ, n dʌʔ
And "how much[/many]"?
她：du uɔ, du uɔ.
她：然后一种书面说法是 do saʊ
There's also a literary pronunciation, [do saʊ]
To know (somebody), [ɲiɲ], [ɲiɲ]
她：啊。然后… 吃饭是 ʨʰ veɛ
Right. Also… "to eat" is [ʨʰ veɛ]
她：fɛn ʨʰ veɛ va
她： 啊。fɛn 是，就是没有
Yeah [fɛn] is, it's 没有.
|[m] m m||[n] n n||[ɲ] n||[ŋ] ng ng|
|m m||n n||gn ny||ng ng|
|[p] b b||[t] d d||[k] g g||[ʔ] k `|
|p p||t t||k k||* `|
|[pʰ] p p||[tʰ] t t||[kʰ] k k|
|ph ph||th th||kh kh|
|[b] bh||[d] dh||[g] gh|
|b b||d d||g g|
|[ts] z z||[ʨ] j j|
|tz ts||c j|
|[tsʰ] c c||[ʨʰ] q q|
|ts tsh||ch tsh|
|[f] f f||[s] s s||[ɕ] x x||[h] h h|
|f f||s s||x sh||h h|
|[v] v||[z] sh||[ʑ] xh|
|v v||z z||j z|
|[l] l l||[ɦ] hh h|
|l l||r gh|
|laopai||kyi-dan-kau z taung tien-sin chuh k meh-z.|
|modern||ci-de-kau zy daon thie-tsin chih keh me-zeh.|
|pinyin||jīdàngāo shì táng tiānjīn chī de měishí|
|平||55||江 天 飞 开||23||来 同 骂 洞|
|上||52||懂 纸 有 买||31||是 道 静 策|
|去||24||13||对 去 庙 画|
|入||5||各 黑 脱 出||2||绿 石 肉 读|
|ɦi||zã tsã||ʨiɤ tsø ɦu du||lø||mo||ɲɪɲ|PREFACEIn February, 1919, a Committee was appointed for the purpose of adapting the National Phonetic script to the Shanghai and Soochow dialects. The alphabet upon which these lessons are based is the one agreed upon by this Committee.
The lessons were first prepared in chart form and used in teaching the women of the Embroidery Mission to read and write.
The fact that from the very first lesson the pupils re ale to read ordinary sentences WHICH THEY CAN UNDERSTAND creates an interest which makes them anxious to complete the series. The strongest appeal which is the study of phonetics makes to the women is that it will enable them to write letters. For this reason we have included two letters in the Primer.
Experience has shown that a more ready response is obtained when the words are taucht first and afterwards divided into the phonetic elements. The word exercises beginning on page 13 are to be used for additional practice in combining the various sounds.
When this Primer is thoroughly mastered the pupil will be prepared to read anything published in the Shanghai of Soochow dialects.
January 1, 1920 FRANCES BURKHEAD
注音字母故事 tsu-ing z-moo koo-z ㄗㄩㄧㄣㄙㄇㄨㄍㄨㄙ
蘇州口音 soo-tseu kheu-ing
kyi-dan-kau lo li chi tse
kyi-dan-kau z taung tien-sin chuh k meh-z. k-k kau-k mi-dau jieh hau chuh.
'veh lung noen-hui zien hwoen-hyi chuh-k. zaung-he ling-s-mo-tok ihcha-mung ting hwoen-hyi
chuh k. k-k dan-kau z 'li-tok auh -li soo-tsoo k. tse yeu khaung lau mak
pah-ts kok yang meh-z peh kyi chuh k. soo-i 'li-tok yang-ts too-hwo kyi. 'li-tok
'me li-pa tsho 'veh too yeu san-s tsoen yoong kyi-dan-kau taung zo-tien. li-pok
ok-li yeu liang-k siau-goen.nen k kyau pau-loo nyui k kyau me-me.'me-nyieh
'li-tok liang-k nyung chi dok su iau teu ih li too loo tok.ing-we loo zeh
kang yoen. le-chi 'veh bien-tuang. soo-i 'li-tok tau 'aung li chi k zung-kwaung pa-ts
van lau chi k.ih nyieh pau-loo faung-'auh. tseu tau tsau-'o mung 'li-k nyang ak
yeu chuh-k meh-z. in-we 'li jieh-ji doo-li ngoo. li-k nyang zang-zang thing
kyien zeh kang mung. zieu te 'li seh. lah tsau-'o zu-li bung-ts-li yeu ling-
khooe kyi-tan2-kau. ne khoo-i chi no le chuh. ih khooe meh peh me-me chuh.
pau-loo zieu chi chuh-ts ih khooe. dan-z 'wan iau chuh me-me k ih khooe. zieu tse
chi mung 'li-k nyang seh 'li tse iau chuh kooe-k ih khooe. tung me-me tsoen le khoo-i
chuh bie-k me-z. khoo-i nyi 'veh khoo-i kya. 'li-k nyang thing-kyien ts zieu te 'li
khoen ts ieh-hyieh. pau-loo kok zak zan-gwe-khooe kau zung-jeu chi
faung lah tsau-'o. 'veh too ieh-hyieh me-me zoong 'auh-daung li tsoen-le tse. 'li-k
nyang kyau 'li tau tsau-'o chi no kyi-dan-kau chuh. me-me zieu seh 'm-me soo tsoo
k kyi-dan-kau z jiah-hau chuh k. soo-i 'li lieh-kheh tau tsau-'o shi no-le
chuh. dan z no 'veh zak. 'li tse chi mung 'm-'me seh kyi-dan-kau nah-hang 'veh lah
woen-zu li. we-tah-seh lah woen-zu k 'o-kyung. me-me seh. tsuh yeu ieh-tsak khoong
bung-ts. bing 'veh-yeu kau lah he. ling-z-mo jieh hyi-ji 'li lieh-kheh tseu
tau tsau-'o chi ieh khoen. koo zoen 'veh yeu. sing-li jieh 'veh kha-weh lau seh
pieh-ding z oau-loo chuh theh k. 'eu-le z-ka siang lau seh tshieh-pok se k
siau koen tse hwoen-hyi chuh k. 've-lung chuh k me-s pau-loo zoong siau zeu-zak
kyau-yok. siang 've-tau 'li 'we tsoo ze-kang k z ti. soo-i zieu no-ts-tian
bie-k me-z lah me-me chuh. di-hi-hie z li-pa-lok. ih ka mung lah chuh
tsoong-van k zung-kwaung 'me-hung yeu tuh chuh liang khooe kyi-dan-gau. k-k zung-kwaung
ling-s-mo te ling-sien-sang seh. 'veh iau peh pau-loo chuh ing-'we 'li zok-nyie
i-kyung too chuh ih-khooe. pau-loo seh ngoo mung-ts 'm-'me i-heu zieu chi faung
lah bung-ts li-k. 'veh sung chuh. 'li-k nyang seh ngoo i-kyung tah me-me ih dau
tau tsau-'o li chi zing-koo. tsuh yeu ih-tsak khoong bung-ts. nyang seh-k zung-kwaung
yeu 'veh kha-weh k iang seh. ping-khi yeu ieu-zieu k yang-seh. ling-sien-sang
khoen-kyien zeh-kang kang-seh jieh-ji-hyi-ji. siang pau-loo iau tah nyang bien-lung.
zieu se pau-loo seh. ne 'veh iau too-seh. k-k z-thi, i-'eu khoo-i tse zo.
zoen-zoen zo-kheh z ne duh theh ne me-me k zeh-veh mehm ne tsung-tsung z ih
k 'veh-hau k siau-koen. ling-s-mo seh, yien-se 'veh pieh tse di chi k-k s-thi.
yien-se khoo-i kaung bieh k z-thi.
li-pa-ih 'o poen hieh, ling-ka-li tse tsoo kyi-da-kau. oau-loo zoong 'auh-
taung-li tsoen le. 'li-k nyang seh, 'auh-taung s ne doo-li ngoo. ngoo i-kyung yui-be
ih khooe kyi-dan-kau peh ne taung tien-sin. ne khoo-i tau chuh-van-kan li chi no.
pau-loo seh, k-k ih-doo-khooe-kau ak z peh ngoo ih-k-hung chuh k. sing-li jih-
ji kha-'leh. hweh-zoen siang zak li-pa-ng k z-thi. zieu seh 'm-'me peh ngoo
zeh-kang ih-doo khooe-kau, pih ding i-we ngoo lah li-pa-ng duh-ngoo me-me
k chuh-seh. ji-zeh 'veh-z ngoo shuh k. 'li-k nyang se, ngoo soo tsoo k kau z
peh ng-tok chuh k. peh-koo ngoo ting 'veh hwoen-hyi ng-tok ziang siau-hung thoen chuh
bieh-hung k meh-z. ing-we nyung lah nyien-ky-chung k zung-kwaung, 'veh nung tuh-sung
ze-auh tau tsang doo k zung kwaung, pieh ding 'an lah ze-hieh li. ziang ia-
phien-iien lau hyang-iieh tah-ts tsieu ih yang k. zak-zoen lah nyien-chung k zung-kwaung nung-
keu sung-koo ih-tshieh ze-auh, k-meh tau tsang doo k zung kwaung, zieu nung-keu tuh-
sung ih-tsieh iung-ieu lau mi-weh. zoong tsh zung-koong zeu-we laung k ieh-k woen-
zien-nyung. k-k ih-ia pau-loo sing-li jieh 'veh bing-oen. khwung lah zaung-laung
meh, khwung 'veh-zak zieu chi-le tau-kau zang-ti seh, ngoo lah tsu-hieh-'o-li,
dok-koo ieh kyui kyung-kyui suh, van-i, nyung yeu wan-nan jeu zang-ti, zang-ti
tieh kyeu 'li. ngoo yien-ze k wan-nan zieu z kyi-tan2-kau k z thi. ze iui
bieh-nyung soen siau z thi, dan, z ze iui nyi seau-koen sung-laung z jieh nan
zeu k. yien-ze ih-ka-mung zien i-we ngoo chuh theh k-khwe kyi-tan-kau. tsuh
yeu zang-tu hyau-tuh k. tshing ne kyeu ngoo theh-li k-k khwung nan. tau-kau woen-
tieh, tse chi khwung. zung-jeu khwung 'veh-zak. tse chi-le tau kau lau seh, zak-
zoen ngoo k nyang 'veh kau-soo ngoo no me-me soo chuh-k kau-k tsho meh, jeu zang-ti
paung-zoo ngoo nung-keu sung-koo ih tshieh ze-auh. ping-tshien nung-keu tsau ia-soo
soo-seh-k lau 'ang. zieu z seh, ne nyoen-y nyung nah-hang de-ne, ne 'ah ing-
ke nah-hang de-nyung. ngoo i-kyung tsoo tsho lau van-ze, jeu zang-ti paung-zoo ngoo.
i-'eu 'veh tse sang z koo-z k sing. ping-tshien kyeu ngoo tshuh k-k boo wan-nan.
tau-kau woen-ts zieu khwung zak tse. di-nyi-nyieh tsau laung, thing-kyien yoen-li ieu
doo-k sung-ing. lieh-kheh zoong leu laung 'o le. khoen-kyien 'li-k ya tse-zaung-chi-
tang pak-sien-sang k ih-tsak huh-keu. keu kyau-tuh 'man-hyang. pak sien-sang mung lau seh.
ngoo k key tsoo-ts sa k tsho-z kya. ling-sien-sang siay lay seh, k-tsak keu zoong
tshaung-li thiau tau tsau-'o 'an ts ih-khooe kyi-dan-kay chi. thieh-tsung peh ngoo
khoen-kyien. soo-i ngoo tang 'li. pak-sien sang suh, k-tsal zeh-keu. zaung li-pa-ng 'o-
khoo k i-'eu ngoo-k s-mo 'ah khoen-kyien 'li 'an-ts ih-khwe ting, zoong ne ok-
li-tsheh-le. ngoo thieh-tsung le kau soo ng-tok. pau-loo thing-kyien-ts, jieh ji kha-
weh. ing-we tsoong-nyung nyi-weh 'li k z-thi, i-kyung ka-khe. zieu seh, ngoo-k
hau-keu. zieu tse peh 'li chuh ih-khwe oing. ya iau tsoo-taung 'li i-kyung le
'veh ji. pau-loo seh, ngoo jieh kha-weh. ing-we ng-tok 'veh-i-we ngoo z ih
k seh-hwaung-k-nyung. 'an hyay-tuh k-khwe-kau 'veh z ngoo chuh k. tau-ts li-pa-
san chuh fan-k z-'eu. pau loo hyau-khe lan-ke, khoen kyien yeu ih doo khwe woen-zien
k kyi-ban-kau. tsung-tsung kha weh lau zieu no-tsheh le ih-tchieh liang-khwe. ih-
khwe peh 'li-k me-me chuh. tse yey ih-khwe tshing mung khoen sui-k nyung ak hy tuh
sa-nyung chuh k.
2. possible typo in the original. should be "dan".
3. often 'ng' is written to mark /n/ or even just what would be a nasalization of a vowel in modern 苏州话, though in the case of the latter it's likely an -n or -ng ending on the same word in Mandarin.
|阴平 44 ¯||阳平 223 ´|
|上声 51 `|
|阴去 523 ˇ||阳去 231 ˆ|
|阴入 43 -k/-t||阳入 23 -g/-d|
|ii - ẓ/ɿ||i - i||an - ã|
|a - ɑ||ia - iɑ||en - ən|
|o - o||io - io||ang - ɑ̃|
|e - ɛ||ie - ɪ||ong - oŋ|
|ao - æ||iao - iæ||at/ad - aʔ|
|oe - ø||ioe - oø||ak/ag - ɑʔ|
|ou - øʏ||iou - ʏ||ek/eg - əʔ|
|y - ẓʷ/ʮ||ok/og - oʔ|
|ian - iã||in - in|
|iang - iɑ̃||iong - ioŋ||uek/ueg - uəʔ|
|iat - iaʔ||uan - uã|
|iak/iag - iɑʔ||uen - uən||ün - yn|
|ik/ig - iəʔ||uang - uɑ̃||üad - yaʔ|
|iok/iog - ioʔ||uat/uad - uaʔ||üek/üeg - yəʔ|
nê hào a, piě ngu at shǐi? nê sek zoě qi liánse'gek ngeg weg, segdǎozii gūxik jiānjian lé! at shǐi liánse'gek ngeg jia, zekpò yôu liánse nié ze. ngû jiao niángyi dao séfhangli koězii ne jìdha, sekshǐi fēn lě, ngû é sǐnfekgu, gatbik gokhǎobhu ad lé koě ne, dāo sekdhao fek lékek ze. nêzak zỳ atshǐi fāngpi, seklagdo éo at yòu yikjù zǔdao. bek ngū dāo jīhao ladli nê zē fek lé meg, saksǐn datnê sângyikshang, sy sy koe meg zè!*
The simplified form of ràng ‘to allow’ illustrates several interesting points. First of all, it’s a newly created xíngshēng character consisting of the ’speech’ radical on the left and a phonetic element on the right. The radical itself is a simplified component based on its cursive form, and is used in its simplified form whenever it occurs as the left-hand component in a character. The phonetic, pronounced shàng, is at first sight rather puzzling, since the alternation of words beginning with sh and r in a single phonetic series is unusual. The explanation for this rather odd usage probably lies in the character’s dialectical origin; in certain Wú dialects the literary readings of ràng and shàng are the same. (In the Sūzhōu dialect, for example, both are pronounced zaŋ6.) Although this particular simplified character is probably of regional origin, its extreme simplicity no doubt led to its being adopted in other regions of China, and finally to its acceptance as an officially sanctioned simplified character.
(transcription blatantly stolen from John's site)
|江苏省 →||浙江省 →|
|yin ping||yin shang||yin qu||yin ru|
|yang ping||yang shang||yang qu||yang ru|
"I think the hardest part now for promoting Shanghainese is to let people understand that promoting a dialect is different from saying it (together with its culture and people) is superior than other dialects (and people and local cultures). Shanghainese and Shanghai people had such a bad reputation in the past (for which we only have ourselves to blame) that it is very difficult for people to distinguish these two separate issues."
|ng ͡ wu||xiang||xiao||de||nong||dui||ge||ge||wen||di||ge||kui||fa|
I'm pretty certain it won't take long for Wu to be blended out. You can see it happening already from one generation to the next. There's a lot of pressure, especially in the non-Shanghai Wu regions, to not sound like you're a Wu speaker. Jobs are given or denied to people based on how well they speak standard Mandarin. I know a number of families in the area where the grandparents can't speak any Mandarin, then their children speak both but with heavily accented Mandarin, and then their children can understand Wu but can speak only Mandarin. I can only imagine the l33t Wu skills of the 4th generation.That pretty much sums up my position. It seems that in a culture where accents matter and people are regularly teased at the workplace for sounding too much like they're from the place in which they grew up and where clients truly judge the representatives spoken Mandarin, I can't really see Wu lasting more than a couple more generations. Mandarin is already having a much greater influence on it than 20 years ago, and even English at that.
A semi-academic linguistics blog about Sinotibetan, previously focused primarily on Wú, a Sinitic language spoken in the Yangtze Delta region. Topics now include historical linguistics, documentation, language rights, sociolinguistics and learning materials, as well as acting as the dev blog for Phonemica from time to time.
I'm a linguist based in Asia, working on documentation and historical development of Sinotibetan. In addition to academic research, I'm heavily involved in Phonemica, an organisation that promotes crowd-sourced preservation of local languages.
I'm currently in the field, so getting in touch isn't easy. However you can try to email me at the following address and I'll respond as soon as I'm able:email@example.com